A comment bank to provide help with APA format to your students

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showing a bank of sample feedback comments

The following comment bank can be loaded into eMarking Assistant to help you when grading APA papers. When you have loaded it in to eMarking Assistant you can easily insert the comments when you are grading APA papers to provide your students with help with APA format.

Common comments on APA mistakes, APA errors

The following pages contain information on common APA errors which you can use to access comments to your APA comment bank:

Comments you can use when grading APA papers and providing APA feedback, APA corrections, and providing help with APA format

This APA feedback comment bank contains comments on APA corrections based on common mistakes made by students when preparing papers using the Publication Manual  of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). It also contains comments relevant to university or college level academic writing.

The comment bank can be imported into eMarking Assistant which provides a convenient way of inserting these comments when marking or grading APA papers. There is one row for each comment with the following columns:

  • the comment name  which should be less than 31 characters made up of a category, then a “-“, and then the specific comment e.g. pagenumbering-position
  • the body of the comment which could include anything you can insert into a Word document e.g. formatted text, links, lists of points, images, tables, sounds etc. Generally it will also contain the relevant section and page in 6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association e.g. (see section 3.09 pp. 68-69)

A free 30 day trial and video demonstrations of eMarking Assistant is available from http://eMarkingAssistant.com.

Name Content
abstract-format The abstract should be a single paragraph and generally between 150 to 250 words (depending on requirements), and presented using double spacing and flush left margin (see section 2.13, figure 2.1, p. 41).
abstract-heading The abstract heading should be centered and bold (see section 2.13, figure 2.1, p. 41).
abstract-needed An abstract is needed (see section 2.04, p. 25).
abstract-new page The abstract should start on a new page (see section 2.13, figure 2.1, p. 41).
abstract-not suitable The abstract should be a brief, accurate, not evaluative, coherent, readable, compressive summary of the article. Section 2.04 provides details of what should be in the abstract of different types of articles (see section 2.04, pp. 25-27).
acadWrit-needed You should use an academic writing style in this work. Academic writing is characterised by the use of academic words, academic structures, and academic conventions (see http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/ for more information).
acadWrit- bad paraphrase Paraphrasing or summarising a reference is more than changing several words in a sentence and including it in your work. While there are no strict rules, you should use a direct quotation if you are using more than 4 or 5 exact words from a source. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/ for more information
acadWrit-attention to detail In academic writing it is important to attend to detail (e.g. correct capitalisation) as mistakes will erode your credibility.
acadWrit-avoid personal Academic writing is generally (but not always) is expressed using impersonal language that avoids the use of:

  • personal pronouns e.g. “I”, “we” , “our”
  • personal judgements e.g. “I believe”
  • emotive words e.g. “repulsive”

For more information see http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/2d.html or http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/4a.html

acadWrit-avoid verbosity It is usually a good idea to make your academic writing as concise as possible. You can often remove redundant words without changing the meaning of the sentence. The following resources will assist you:

How could this be written more concisely?

acadWrit-colloquial This is a colloquial expression and thus should be either placed in quotes or not used in academic writing.
AcadWrit-first person Formal academic writing generally focusses on the research rather than the researchers e.g. “The results indicate  …” rather than “We believe the results indicate …”. You can however use the first person when referring to yourself or your co-researchers. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/15/ for more details.
acadWrit-general guidance Academic writing has specific conventions and style and it is important that you are able to use these in your work studies. I suggest you look at the Academic Writing pages within knowledgeGarden at: USQ’s Learning and Teaching Support Unit, (LTSU) developed ALSonline http://www.usq.edu.au/ltsu/  to support online students. You can contact them and get one to one assistance with your academic writing and research skills.
acadWrit-need reference here You should have an intext reference here and a corresponding entry in your reference list.
acadWrit-plagiarism This appears to have been plagiarised from:?–?Plagiarism is a serious form of academic misconduct and there are serious consequences.  You should look at http://www.usq.edu.au/plagiarism/infostud/ to make yourself aware of:

  • Plagiarism Explained
  • Examples
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Detection and Consequences
  • Frequently-asked Questions
  • Additional Resources

I will write more about this in the comments section at the end of your assignment.

acadWrit-quote not connected Before you include a quote you must clearly say how or why it relates to your argument. A series of disconnected quotations will erode the strength of your argument.
acadWrit-rhetorical quest It is generally best not to use too many rhetorical questions in academic writing. You should be providing the answers supported by examples and evidence. Please look at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/ for suggestions on academic writing.
AcadWrit-tense agreement Ensure that verb tense (past, present and future)  is consistent e.g. “My sister runs to work last Thursday” should be “My sister ran to work last Thursday”. See  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/index.php?category_id=2&sub_category_id=2&article_id=63 or http://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/index.php?category_id=2&sub_category_id=2&article_id=63 for exercises based on tense agreements
acadWrit-unreliable ref This may be an unreliable source to support your argument. More reliable sources will strengthen your argument and less reliable or dubious sources can weaken your argument. More information on  evaluating sources is available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/553/01/
acadWrit-use of first person It is best not to use first person or personal opinions in academic writing. There is more information on this at: http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/2di.htmlHow could this be expressed without using the first person?
acadWrit-use of formal words This would be better expressed using formal, technical or specialised language that is typically used in academic writing. Technical language is often more precise and concise. How could you state this in a more technical way? For a comparison of formal and informal text see http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/2b.html and http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/academic/2c.htmlHow could this be expressed in more formal academic language?
APA-intext. no initials APA intext citations should not include initials. Please revise the APA referencing guide
APA-intext.before full stop The in-text citation should be inside the sentence i.e. before the full stop.
APA-intext.date in brackets In APA format, if the authors name is part of the sentence then only the date is in brackets. Please revise the APA referencing guide
APA-intext.use of et.al. In APA referencing, “et. al.” is used the second time the same reference (with 5 or more authors) is used in the same paragraph.
APA-pointer to WWW guides Please look at the following sites for the correct way of referencing and citing text using APA http://www.usq.edu.au/library/help/ehelp/ref_guides/apastyle/  or
APA-quote block no quote marks In APA format there is no need for quotation marks if you are using a block indent for quotations longer than 40 words.
APA-quote double quotations In APA format you need to use double quote marks for quotations.
APA-quote longer than 40 words In APA format you should use an indented block and no quotation marks for quotations longer than 40 words. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/apa/sources/quotes.htmlThe following screen image shows a block quotation with paragraph marks turned on showing the indent marker on the ruler.This button turns paragraph marks on
APA-quote page number needed You need a proper APA intext citation for a direct quote (Author, date, page or section).
APA-ref alphabetical order The references should be in alphabetical order.
APA-ref indent 2nd line In APA format the first line on each reference should be on the margin and subsequent lines indented about 5 characters. The following screen image shows a reference with paragraph marks turned on showing the indent marker on the ruler.This button turns paragraph marks onSee http://office.microsoft.com/en-au/word/HP100165281033.aspx for more information.
APA-ref no author and exact URL In APA format, if the reference does not have a known author, you should use the title of the page. You need to give the exact URL for the page.
APA-ref section of book In APA format, if you are referencing a section of an edited book you should include the author and title of the section as well as the editors and title of the book. See http://www.usq.edu.au/library/help/ehelp/ref_guides/apastyle/chapters.htm
APA-ref URL reference This is not APA format. The URL component should be “Retrieved on March 5, 2005 from http://www.some.comSee http://www.usq.edu.au/library/help/ehelp/ref_guides/apastyle/electronic.htm
APA-references section In APA format this section should be called “References”.
citation -not in list of references This in-text citation does not appear in the list of references
citation -ordering of multiple citations Items in the Reference List are ordered in the following way:

  • alphabetically by the first author and the initials of the first author then by the second author etc
  • if an initial is missing then this is ordered before “A”
  • if the authors of several works are identical then order by publication date from earlier to later
  • if there are no authors then order the items alphabetically by the first significant word of the organization or title (see section 6.25, Pp.181-183)
Citation-anonymous author If the author is listed as anonymous  then use “anaonymous” as the intext citation (see section 6.15, p. 177).e.g.… experimental results (Anonymous,  1960)
citation-et al.(3-5) If a work has three, four or five authors the first time it is cited in-text all authors should be listed and in subsequent times et al. can be used (see section 6.12, p. 175).e.g.… experimental results (Smith, et al., 1960).
citation-et al.(3-5) If the use of et al. results in two works being shorted to the same text then inlude as many of the subsequent authors to make the in-text citation unique  (see section 6.12, p. 175).e.g.… (Smith, George, Robertson,  et al., 1960)
citation-et al.(6+) If a work has six or more authors the first time it is cited in-text et al. can be used (see section 6.12, p. 175).
Citation-group authors If the work is authored by a corporation, association, government agency, study group then use the group name in the first instance and then abbreviate it in future instances (see section 6.13, p. 176).e.g.… experimental results (Coal miners of Australia,  1960)
citation-inconsistencies There are inconsistencies between the in-text citations of the same work or the in-text citations and items in the references.
citation-incorrect comma or ampersand Commas are used between multiple authors of the same work in the in-text citation and an comma and an ampersand is used between the last two authors (see section 6.11 p. 175).e.g.… (Smith, Jones, & Rogers, 1999)
citation-incorrect comma or ampersand Commas are used between multiple authors of the same work in the in-text citation and an comma and “and” is used between the last two authors in an inline reference to a work (see section 6.11 p. 175).e.g.… Smith, Jones, and Rogers (1999) suggestion that …
Citation-no identified author If there  is no identified author then use the first few words used in the references (usually the title) in the intext citation (see section 6.15, p. 176).
Citation-personal communication Personal communication are items that are not archived or available to the reader and thus do not need to be included in the references (see section 6.20, p. 179).e.g.… results (Smith, personal communication, January 16, 1956).
Citation-same surname If the author of the work has the same surname then include the first authors initials in all text references (see section 6.14, p. 176).
Citation-secondary source Use secondary sources only rarely when you cannot read the original work. There is no need to include the primary source in the references  (see section 6.17, p. 178).e.g.… results (Smith, as cited in Jones, 2007).
Citation-two or more works Order the citations in the same order that they would be in the references separated by a semicolon. If two works have the same author(s) then  only the date needs to be given for the seconde.g.… (Smith & Read, 2007, 2008; Willson, 2010)
Citation-year  unknown If the original year is not known then cite the year of the translation or the year the version was produce (see section 6.13, p. 176).e.g.James (1890/1932)
confusedWd See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/index.php?category_id=2&sub_category_id=1&article_id=48 for a list of commonly confused words
  • “It’s” is a contraction of “it is”
  • “Its” is a possessive pronoun meaning “something belongs to it”

(see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/621/01/)

  • There is a place or a direction e.g. the dog is over there
  • Their refers to something that they own e.g. their car
  • There is a contraction of “they are”

(see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/621/01/)

content-too short or too long Your paper (excluding appendices and the references) should be within 10% above or below the suggested word length. It is a good idea to use the Word count function in your word processor and list the word count on the assignment cover page.
convention.points & head no . Points in a list or headings are generally not sentences and thus do not need a full stop.
convention-acronyms CAPS Acronyms are always capitalised e.g. CD-ROM, MSN. Some have slipped into the language to the extend that this no longer applies e.g. Qantas
convention-in full 1st time You should spell out this abbreviation in full the first time it is used.
emarking-Word revision marks Changes to this section have been recorded using Word “track revisions”. You can use options in the show dropdown menu to look at any of the following. This is useful to show the original and the revised version and the way it has been changed.
format.double Space All text should be double line spaced. Leave a bank line after every line in the title, headings, footnotes, quotations, references and figure captions. Never use single spacing except in tables or figures (see section 8.3, p. 229).
Format-font The preferred typeface is Times New Roman 12 point (see section 8.3, p. 229).
format-indent 1st line The first line of every paragraph and the first line of every footnote should be indented. The only exceptions are: the abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table titles and notes, and figure captions (see section 8.3, p. 229).
format-margins Use a consistent margin of at least 2.54cms at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page (see section 8.3, p. 229).
format-not done You have not followed the specific format that you were asked to use e.g.

  • Double spacing
  • Times 12 point
  • Header and footer

The fact that you did not follow these instructions is an oversight that implies that you have not carefully read the topic.

Format-page order Pages in  the manuscript should be in the following order (see section 8.3, pp. 229-230)

  • Title page: including, title, running head, author byline, institutional affiliation, and author note. This is page 1
  • Abstract: start on a new page and numbered 2
  • Text: start on a new page and numbered 3
  • References: start on a new page
  • Tables: start each on a new page
  • Figures: start each on a new page
  • Appendices: start each on a new page
format-para break You should use a blank line between paragraphs or indent first line of each paragraph so it is clear where the paragraph breaks are.
format-professional pres It is good to see the professional presentation of this assignment with a coverpage and table of contents based on styles … well done.
format-suggest coverpage It is generally worthwhile preparing a professional cover page that gives the name of the paper, the course, and your name. If you are given a word limit you should also include the number of words in the assignment (excluding appendices and references).
format-using lists Using bullets or numbered lists is one way of introducing a little visual variety into your presentation and it makes is easier to quickly scan the document and see the structure.
heading-level 1 Level 1 headings should be centered, boldface, upper and lower case (title case) (see section 3.03, p. 62).e.g.

Experimental Evidence

heading-level 2 Level 2 headings  should be flush left, upper and lower case (title case) (see section 3.03, p. 62).
heading-level 3 Level 3 headings  should be indented, boldface, with only the first letter capitalised (sentence case) and end with a period (see section 3.03, p. 62).e.g.Sample analysis.
heading-level 4 Level 4 headings  should be indented, boldface, italicized upper and lower case (title case) and end with a period (see section 3.03, p. 62)e.g.Sample analysis. The analysis showed …
heading-level 5 Level 5 headings  should be be indented, italicized upper and lower case (title case) and end with a period (see section 3.03, p. 62).e.g.Sample analysis. The analysis showed …
headings-5 levels The article should be organised using 5 levels of headings (see section 3.03, pp.62-63).
Headings-avoid single heading You should avoid a single subheading in a section (see section 3.03, pp.62-63).
headings-no numbers or letters Headings should not be numbered or lettered (see section 3.03, pp.62-63).
headings-similar importance Headings at the same level should be of similar “importance” (see section 3.03, pp.62-63).
keywords-format The Keywords line must be included immediately below the abstract and be indented and start with “Keywords: ” followed by the keywords separated by commas (see section 2.13, figure 2.1, p. 41).e.g.Keywords: emotion, aging, attention
keywords-needed The keywords line is required immediately below the abstract (see section 2.13, figure 2.1, p. 41).
keywords-not accurate The keywords are do not accurately reflect the content.
msword-auto width-height tables It is generally better to allow Word to automatically set table and column widths and heights. If you set absolute width and height some text may be hidden depending on the viewer’s computer and fonts.
msword-better use You should look at the knowledgeGarden page on suggestions for effectively using different features of Word.
msword-grammar and spelling Please use the spelling checker and grammar checker in Word to identify possible problems. Right click on the red and green underlining in Word to identify possible grammar and spelling errors e.g. below there are problems with spacing.
msword-headers and footers and Please use headers, footers and page breaks in Word and this will mean that you will not have this type of problem.
msword-indent It is best to use the margins within the Word ruler to control the indenting rather than add spaces or tabs to the start of the line.This button turns paragraph marks on so you can see spaces and tabs. The following paragraph uses indent markershttp://office.microsoft.com/en-au/word/HP100165281033.aspx
msword-keep with next If you use PAGE BREAKS (INSERT > BREAK > PAGE BREAK) and KEEP WITH NEXT (FORMAT > PARAGRAPH > LINE BREAKS > KEEP WITH NEXT) in Word you will avoid these types of problems with pagination.
msword-line spacing In Word you should not press the “enter” key at the end of each paragraph. To get double spacing use the FORMAT menu > PARAGRAPH > LINE  SPACING
msword-make clickable links It is usually a good idea to make links clickable. In Word you can do this by highlighting the text then INSERT > HYPERLINK or if the text is a fully formatted link starting with http:// you can just press space and the link will be automagically formed.
msword-outline, headings, toc If you use outline mode in Word (VIEW > OUTLINE) and headings you can get Word to automatically generate a Table of Contents (INSERT > REFERENCE > TABLES > TABLE OF CONTENTS) with page numbers and links.
msword-page breaks Once you learn about page and section breaks in Word you will not have this problem with things being on the wrong page.
msword-paste to check spelling This contains simple grammar and spelling mistakes. An easy way to scan web pages, blog posts or forum messages for spelling mistakes is to paste it into a Word document (you might want to use EDIT > PASTE SPECIAL > UNFORMATTED TEXT to speed up the paste) and then use Word’s spelling and grammar checker.
msword-position picture inline There are two main ways to positional images in the text in WordThe first anchors it to a position on the page and the second floats up and down as you add to delete text … the second way (inline) is generally best and you can set this by Right clicking the picture >  FORMAT PICTURE > POSITION > INLINE.  This will stop the text and the picture being in on top of each other.
msword-show invisible chars Clicking the reverse “P” will display invisible characters such as space, tab or the return character at the end of paragraphs. This will often help you to sort out formatting difficulties if you can’t see these invisible characters e.g. the following 4 lines will look exactly the same  when invisible characters are not shown but they will behave differently when you format them. They are formatted using:

  • Multiple spaces
  • Multiple tabs
  • Single tabs and the ruler
  • A hidden table


Option 3 and 4 are probably the most flexible when you are designing a table or a document.

msword-tabs and ruler Use of Tabs on the ruler in Word and/or setting the first line indent will avoid these types of problems.
msword-TABS tables for layout It is generally better to use the TABS on the ruler or even a table (with or without the border showing) to align elements in this type of layout.
msword-unexpected macro I was surprised to see a message that this document contains a Word macro. There are many good reasons why you might have a Word macro in your document but it is probably a good idea to tell the reader of the document what the macro is and what it does. Without this information people will disable the macro and thus not see the functionality you might have included in the macro.More information about Word macros is available from http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx/kb/187243 or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro_virus_(computing)
msword-using list structure Using the numbered and bulleted list structure in Word will help to make the structure of your ideas easier to see. These also add to the visual interest of the page and make the text much easier to read if it is ever put online.
msword-using tables to Using a table (with the borders hidden or shown) is one way of laying out multicolumn page layout within Word or controlling where information is shown on the page.
msword-word count If you have been given a word limit it is a good idea to show the number of words (excluding cover page, references, appendices) on the cover page
Organisation- lists in sentences Use lower case letters in parentheses  separated by semicolons to signify a list embedded in a sentence  (see section 3.4, p. 64) e.g. The following fruit were used (a) apples; (b) oranges; (c) bananas
Organisation-numbered lists Use Arabic numbers followed by a period to list items where order can be specified (see section 3.4, p. 63-64) e.g.The following groups  were identified:1. Individual people …2. Non-depressed people3. Depressed people
Organisation-unorded  lists Use small circles or squares to create a bulleted list where no order is implied (see section 3.4, pp. 63-64) e.g.The following fruit were used:

  • apples
  • oranges
  • bananas
page numbering-needed Page numbering is needed on each page (see section 2.13, p. 41, section 8.03, p. 230).
page numbering-position Page number should be flush right and on the same line as the running head (see section 2.13, p. 41, section 8.03, p. 230).
para-long & many ideas There are many separate ideas in this paragraph and this makes it more difficult for the reader. The OWL has some good information on paragraphs at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/01/http://www.usq.edu.au/learningcentre/alsonline/acwrite/parstruct or http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/effective/4.html and the following pages (click NEXT at the top right) are also worth looking at.How would you break this into several paragraphs?
para-not logical structure The sentences in this paragraph are not logically ordered. Generally a topic sentence will be followed by sentences that elaborate or provide supporting evidence and end with a concluding sentence. See http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/effective/4.html for more information.
para-struct with topic sent What is the main idea in this paragraph? The main idea should be in the topic sentence, which is generally the first sentence. After this, you can expand or support the idea with reference to the literature. Structuring your paragraphs in this way helps the reader to know what to expect and see where the augment is going. See http://www.usq.edu.au/learningcentre/alsonline/acwrite/parstruct for more ideas on paragraphs.
para-too short Avoid breaking paragraphs where there is no natural division in the thought. Successions of extremely short paragraphs tend to fragment ideas and one-sentence paragraphs should generally be avoided. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/724/02 and http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/02
Punch-apostrophe The apostrophe has three uses:

  1. To form possessives of nouns e.g. “the cat’s tail”
  2. To show the omission of letters e.g. “don’t” instead of “do not”
  3. To indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters e.g. “mind your p’s and q’s”
punct -comma Use a comma to separate items in a list of 3 or more items (see section 4.03 pp. 88).e.g.remember apples, oranges, and bananas.
punct -comma Use a comma here items (see section 4.02 pp. 88).
punct -double or single quote marks Use single quotes to signify the presence text that was quoted in the original quoted text (see section 4.08, pp.92)e.g.smith (1999) found “the ‘placebo effect’,…”
punct -double quote marks Use double quote marks around text quoted directly from a source, to introduce an ironic comment, slang or coined expression, to surround the title if used in text, or mark materials used in a test (see section 4.07, pp.91)
punct -period Use a period to complete a sentence, with Latin abbreviations (e.g. a.m.), or initials (see section 4.02, pp. 88). Do not use periods with capital letter abbreviations, web addresses, or measurement abbreviations (see section 4.02 pp. 88).
punct-apostrophe Used to indicate:

  • the possessive form e.g. the person’s head
  • indicate missing letters in a contraction e.g. “I’m” for “I am”

(see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/621/01/)

punct-apostrophre This is an incorrect use of an apostrophe, which is used to:

  • to form possessives of nouns
  • to show the omission of letters
  • to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters

The Purdue Online Writing Lab has a good explanation of these issues at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/566/01/  and exercises at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/3/3/10

punct-colon-semicolon You have incorrectly used a colon or semi-colon here. Colons are used to introduce lists and semi-colons are used to before connective words such as “therefore”. See http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/3c.html for more information and an activity.
punct-comma You have incorrectly used a comma here. See http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/3ai.html for more information and an activity.
punct-general This is an incorrect use of a <?insert the punctuation mark here?>. The Purdue Online Writing Lab has a good explanation of these issues at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/566/01/
Quote- explanation required The following changes need to be indicated (see section 6.08, pp. 172-173):

  • Omitted text: indicated by three ellipse points i.e. “…”. If the omitted text overlaps two or more sentences then use four ellipse  points
  • Inserted material: use brackets to indicate text has been inserted to make the quotation clearer
  • Add emphasis: insert [emphasis added] if you italicise any part of the quotation to add emphasis
  • Confirm accuracy: if the quotation contains errors in spelling, punctuation, or grammar that might confuse the reader then [sic] immediately after the error
quote- page or para numbers Quotations must include the page number or page numbers. If the work does not include page numbers then paragraph numbers must be (see section 6.05, pp171-172).e.g.”…” (Smith, 1998, pp. 4-5) or  “…..” (Smith, 2007, para 7)
Quote-containing citations Do not omit citations from the quote. You do not need to include citations  included in quotations in your references (see section 6.09, p. 173).
quote-less than 40 wds Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated into the text and enclosed with double quotation marks (see section 6.03, p. 117-171)
quote-more than 40 wds Quotations of more than 40 words should be block indented without quotation marks. The first line of the quotation does not need to be further indented. If the quotation contains a new paragraph the first line of the new paragraph should be doubly indented. (see section 6.03, p. 117-171)
Quote-need author & year Quotations much include the author, year and page (see section 6.03, p. 117-171)
Quote-no explanation The  case of the first letter of a quotation or the punctuation at the end of a quotation can be changed to fit the context of the quotation (see section 6.07, p. 172)
ref- title of article or chapter Use sentence capitalisation in article or chapter titles . Characters after a colon or dash should be capitalised  (see section 6.29, pp.185-186) e.g.Mental and nervous diseases
ref- title or journal or newspaper Use title  capitalisation in titles. Characters after a colon or dash should be capitalised  (see section 6.29pp.185-186)Journal of Nervous Diseases
ref-ampersand Use an ampersand in in the reference list if there are more than two authors (see section 6.27, pp. 184)e.g.Smith, A. A., & Jones, B. B. (1999)
ref-articles The general format for an article reference is as follows (see section 7.01 pp.198-202):Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/07/  for specific examples of different issues for this type of reference.
ref-author Up to seven authors can be listed with surname and then initials e.g. Authora, A. A., Authorb, B. B., & Authorc, C. C. Use “&” and not “and” between authors. Use a space after the command and after the period after initials. (see section 6.27 p. 184).See also examples at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/06/
ref-books The general format for a book reference is as follows (see section 7.02 pp.202-205):Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/08/  for specific examples of different issues for this type of reference.
ref-but no entry in reference list This intext citation does not appear in the list of references.
ref-but no in-text citation This reference item does not appear as an in-text citation.
ref-comma In references, use commas to separate authors, surnames and initials
Ref-date in press If the work has been accepted for publication but not yet published then use “in press” . (see section 6.28, p. 185) e.g.Smith, S, S. (in press)
Ref-date newspapers Use the full date e.g. (2012, March 7)
Ref-date no date If there is no date then use n.d. (see section 6.28, p. 185) e.g.Smith, S, S. (n. d.)
ref-dissertations The general format for a published dissertation  is as follows  (see section 7.05 pp.207-208):Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/09/   for specific examples of different issues for this type of reference.
ref-double spaced and indent The reference list should be double spaced and use a hanging indent (see p.180)
Ref-editor The editor should be included after the title of the chapter (see section 7.02, pp. 202-205) e.g.Authora, A. A. Title of chapter. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp, ??-??). Location: Publisher
ref-electronic The general format for referencing an electronic reference is to provide similar information to a non-electronic reference ensuring that you provide enough information for retrieval. Several examples are  (see section 7.11 pp.214-215):Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writelivingBrownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from
http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008).Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdfSee http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ for specific examples of different issues for this type of reference.
ref-heading The “References” heading should be centered and not bold or italics and on a new page. The heading is not “Reference  list”.
ref-italics In the references the journal, book, symposium, and paper or poster title should be italicised (see section 6.29, pp.185-186, section 7)
ref-order Order references alphabetically and if the same first author then based on number of authors and the year of publication (see section 6.25, pp.181-183). If there is no author, the first significan word in the title should be used to order the reference list (see section 6.25, p. 181-183
Ref-references or reference The heading of the section containing the reference list is References (see section 2.11, p. 37)
Ref-URL-DOI Because URLs can change it is preferable to give a DOI if possible  (see section 6.31 pp.187-189)
running hd-formatting The running  head should be flush with the left margin and be in all capitals (see section 2.13, p. 41; section 8.03, p. 229).e.g.Running head: EFFECTS ON AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION
running hd-needed A running head is required (see section 8.03, p. 229).
running hd-not suitable The running head must start with the words “Running head:” followed by an abbreviated title of no more than 50 characters counting letters, numbers, punctuation and spaces  (see section 8.03 p. 229).
sentence-fragment This is a sentence fragment because it lacks an essential part of the sentence. Sentence fragment can usefully be fixed by changing the punctuation. How can this be rewritten to be a complete sentence. See the section starting at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/2a.html for more information on sentence fragments. How could you rewrite this sentence?
sentence-runon This is a run on sentence because it contains more than one idea. Run on sentences can generally be repaired by inserting full stops. How can this be rewritten to avoid the run on sentence. See the section starting at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/2b.html for more information. How could you rewrite this sentence?
sentence-sub-verb agree The subject and verb in this sentence do not agree in number or person. See http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/2c.html for exercises on subject – verb agreement. How could your sentence be rewritten?
stages-proofreading Proofreading is an important stage of assignment preparation. When you proof your work you should check for the following issues:

To slow yourself down when proofreading, place a ruler under each line and read the text line by line. Look for the slips you know you often make. The OWL at Purdue has suggestions you can use to make your proofreading more effective http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/561/01/


structure-bad transition How do these two paragraphs relate? Generally you should tell the reader what the connection is and then develop that connection throughout the paragraph.
structure-no conclusion Every essay needs an ending to convey a sense of closure. Your conclusion does not necessarily have to summarize your entire essay; it should, however, reinforce the point you are making in your essay and perhaps place your argument into a larger perspective. Be sure to signal the beginning of your conclusion, and beware of introducing a totally new point in your conclusion.
structure-no organisation The organisation of your paper is not clearly organised to help the reader. Use a clear pattern of organization. Consider such strategies as stating a thesis and then giving a number of supporting arguments; stating a problem and then examining one or more possible solutions; stating a course of action and weighing its advantages and disadvantages; or stating and then refuting a series of arguments against your thesis.There are many acceptable patterns; just be sure that the one you choose suits your material, groups related ideas together, and gives your readers the information they need to understand every point as they come to it.
structure-not logical The ideas in your paper should be organised into a clear, logical and coherent structure.  This clear logical sequence controls how  paragraphs are ordered in paper. For more information see the section that starts at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/effective/2.html and pages that follow when you click the next link
structure-not related It is not clear how this is related to the thesis of your paper. It is not enough that all your ideas and arguments are relevant to your general subject. The reader must understand how they clarify and support your overall argument or thesis.
structure-ordering It is not clear why you have ordered the paragraphs in this way. More information on structuring your argument is available from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03/
student-learning centre I also STRONGLY suggest that you contact and work with someone at The Learning Centre or other services provided by the Learning and Teaching Support Unit (LTSU) at USQ. The URL is http://www.usq.edu.au/learningcentre/   These people have experience helping students to succeed in tertiary study and you should take advantage of their services.
word-easily confused Do not confuse words such as to and too, effect and affect, then and than, and, there and they’re. Check such words when proofreading as they are easy to confuse.
word-wrong word This is not the correct word in this sentence. Make sure that you are using the correct word in the sentence.
writ-bias Avoid bias in language concerning race, disability or sexuality. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/14/ for specific guidelines on avoiding bias (see APA 6th Ed. pp. 70-77)
writ-economy of expression Where possible write as concisely as possible. Short sentences are easier to understand than long sentences and remove redundant words whenever possible (see APA 6th Ed., section 3.08, p. 67). See also http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/15/
writ-precision & clarity Make sure that your writing is precise and clear by choosing words carefully and avoiding unnecessary jargon (see APA 6th Ed. p. 67). See also http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/15/


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